2018/12/31

Welcome to Paradise !

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Welcome to Gokuraku 極楽 the Buddhist Paradise !

I will try and introduce information about the life of Shakyamuni Buddha
and a glossary of terms, many of them are kigo for Japanese haiku.

Paradise, Heaven 極楽 gokuraku and Hell 地獄  jigoku

ano yo あの世 the other world
haraiso はらいそ paradise (paraiso)
higan 彼岸 the other shore
joodo 浄土 Paradise of Amida
ka no yo かの世 the other world
. meido 冥土 冥途 the other world / yomi 黄泉 "the yellow springs" .
paradaisu パラダイス paradise, Paradies
raise 来世 afterlife, the world to come
rakuen 楽園 paradise, earthly paradise
shigo no sekai 死後の世界 the world after death
takai 他界 to die, to pass into the other world
tengoku 天国 heaven
tenjoo 天上 "up there", heaven

. toogen 桃源 Shangri-La シャングリラ, Arcadia, Eden - Toogenkyoo 桃源郷 fairyland, .
桃源郷 lit. Peach Blossom Valley

. raigoo, raigō 来迎 Raigo, the soul on the way to paradise .
"Decent of Amida Buddha", "Amida Coming over the Mountain"
- raigoozuu 来迎図 Raigozu, illustrations of the way to paradise


. Tokoyo no Kuni 常世国, 常世の国 The Eternal Land (of Shintoism) .
yomi 黄泉 the yellow springs, die Gelben Quellen
yuutopia ユートピア Utopia


And in the limbo toward the other world here are a lot of vengeful spirits, monsters and goblins.

. jigoku 地獄 Buddhist hell - Introduction .
naraku ならく / 奈落 hell, hades


. Pilgrimages in Japan - Introduction .


. - - - Glossary of Terms - - - . - not yet in the ABC index.


Your comments and help are most welcome!

Gabi Greve
GokuRakuAn 極楽庵, Japan



. Gokuraku Joodoo 極楽浄土 Gokuraku Jodo, Paradise in the West of Amida Nyorai .



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- - - - - ABC - Table of Contents - - - - -

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- KK KK - / - LLL - / - MMM - / - NNN - / - OOO -

- PPP - / - QQQ - / - RRR - / - SSS - / - TTT -

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. Reference, LINKS - General Information .


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. Join the Jizo Bosatsu Gallery - Facebook .






. Join the Kannon Bosatsu Gallery on facebook .





. Join the Onipedia Demons on facebook .


under construction - please come back!
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2018/12/29

General Information

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General Information and Reference


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. Darumapedia - Temples and Gokuraku .

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A Tourist Guidebook to Paradise  
GokuRaku no Kankoo Annai 極楽の観光案内 by 西村公朝 Nishimura Kocho



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- - - - - - - - - - External LINKS - - -


Buddhism in Japan - Buddha Statues - an extensive guide

A-TO-Z PHOTO DICTIONARY
source : Mark Schumacher



Buddhist Art News - Japan
News on Buddhist art, architecture, archaeology, music, dance, and academia.
- source : buddhistartnews.wordpress.com




地獄と極楽がわかる本 - to understand hell and heaven
source : futabasha.co.jp

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A Cultural History of Japanese Buddhism
William E. Deal, Brian Ruppert




- quote -
Review by Jonathan Ciliberto
Intended for “upper-level undergraduate and graduate students as well as scholars,” A Cultural History of Japanese Buddhism fills a gap by presenting largely recent work of Japanese and Western scholars on Japanese Buddhism. The authors consider prior books on Buddhist cultural history as largely from Indian and Tibetan viewpoints. The particular presumptions, intellectual models, or even prejudices of such positions (e.g., to view Japanese Buddhism as a distant reflection, or a corruption, of a continental original) are seen as obstacles to an accurate history of Buddhism’s influence and interaction with Japan.

The great value of the book is to direct readers to approaches and theories perhaps overlooked by more general histories of Buddhism. Each chapter includes its own bibliography and notes, making the book useful for study of narrow sections of Japan’s history.

Published in 2015, many summaries of and citations to recent scholarship are incorporated. Although a relatively short volume (~200 pages, absent notes and biolographies), it includes a great deal of purely historical information surrounded by “cultural history,” covering Japan from protohistory to the present. The book includes a character glossary.

Some themes that run through the book are: that Buddhism in Japan was not a monolithic “ism,” and that individual sects were not exclusive of one another but rather interacted in practice and doctrine; the complex interaction of indigenous religion with Buddhism; Buddhist lineages in Japan as the agents of cultural influence (e.g., “lineages had already begun to pursue the possibility of an ultimate deity”).

Many chapters include subsections on women and gender in Japanese Buddhism, including a fascinating section on the link between literary salons “established in women’s circles” and often held within monasteries and creating an environment for “the evolving and intimate connection between monastic Buddhists and their lay supporters” (102-4). More generally, these sections illustrate the important influence of women on Japanese Buddhism throughout its history. The book also devotes substantial attention to religion in Japan in the modern period, a much-needed resource.

One instance of a simplification of Japanese history that the authors seek to correct is the view that Shinto and Buddhism remained largely separate strands. While the doctrine of honji-suijaku is relatively well-known, the book reveals in greater depth the complex interplay between the two religions by reference to the writings of recent (and less-recent) scholars.

Another attempt to reveal subtlety beyond a stock scholarly view concerns (in the Heian period) the “limitations of the ‘rhetoric of decadence’ [that] some scholars attribute to ‘old’ Buddhism”. The authors offer Minamoto no Tamenori’s (d. 1101) Sanbo’e as an attempt “to incorporate other parts of the populace” beyond the aristocracy. This undercuts the claim that “practitioners of the ‘old’ Buddhism were completely unconcerned with those outside their walls” as a cause of the emergence of “religious heroes” (like Kukai and Nichiren) (88-90). (That said, the ongoing theme of Japanese Buddhists, unsatisfied with the quality of teaching in Japan, who sought original texts and more authoritative teachers in China, does support the basis of a kind of “decadent” Buddhism.)

It is important to have a sense of what “cultural history” is, or what it intends to do, before considering the authors’ approach to a history Japanese Buddhism. Given that cultural history includes an extremely wide set of approaches, determining the present authors’ use of it as a method is largely about picking out strands from the mass of possibilities. (One author refers to “the notorious difficulty of organizing the disorderly profusion of intradisciplinary, cross-disciplinary, and varying national-intellectual meanings and understandings of the “culture concept” into anything resembling consensual form” [Geoffrey Eley, “What Is Cultural History?”, New German Critique, No. 65, Cultural History/Cultural Studies, Spring – Summer, 1995, pp. 19-36].)

While the authors don’t set out their approach, generally in the present volume they tend to consider Buddhism in Japan less in terms of its religious or spiritual character or content and more as a generator of social and political forms. Or, rather, it is unspoken that religion was the driving force in developing myriad cultural effects in Japan, but the book doesn’t linger on religion itself, as it does on these effects.

It is unclear whether this approach is based on the position described by the scholar of medieval Japanese Buddhism Bernard Faure when he refers to an “absolute standpoint” as a “contradiction in terms” (Faure, Visions of Power (2000), 9). (Faure is frequently cited in A Cultural History of Japanese Buddhism.) That is: there are no “religious” standpoints motivating individuals, in terms of absolute or ideal concepts, or at least that taking direction from such standpoints is delusional.

Faure’s view (following from Le Goff) is that “literary and artistic works of art (and, in the case of religion, ritual practice) do no represent any eternal, unitary reality, but rather are the products of the imagination of those who produce them” (Faure, 10, emphasis added). A similar view of religion advocates a “History of Religions approach – trying to figure out how and why certain forms of religiosity took shape the way they did instead of assuming that it was religious experience that made religion” (Alan Cole, Fathering Your Father (2009), xi).

Thus, Faure and historians who follow his approach write religious history absent of religion as an internal activity, aimed at self-improvement, transcendental, or altruistic. Or perhaps this approach simply considers individual “religious” experiences too personal, too psychologically opaque, to form the basis of historical inquiry, and thus discards consideration of such experiences as “religious” in nature, and instead consider them in mainly terms of materiality and politics.

The authors of A Cultural History of Japanese Buddhism follow more directly the historian Kuroda Toshio’s sociopolitical functionalist approach. While occasionally offering descriptions of Buddhist practice and doctrine, the book largely focuses on: state-control over and connection with Buddhism in Japan (“Buddhism was firmly controlled by the state” during the early period (66)); art as narrative or purely visual, rather than a function of practice (99); Buddhist practice as a means of gaining influence or power at court, and the claim that “undoubtably” the introduction of esoteric lineages was related to the royal court’s interest in such power(106); that the court drove ritual (“Pivotal organizational and philosophical changes begin to arise in the royal court with the consolidation of the annual court ceremonies” (88, 106)).

Throughout, the authors take pains to connect influential Buddhists with the court: “The Daigoji halls, like those in other major monasteries, primarily housed scions of Fujiwara and Minamoto heritage” (107); “The Shingon lineages, from a very early point, […] had a special connection with the royal line” (108); “the intimate association between Tendai’s Enryakuji (Hiei) and the leading Fujiwaras” (108). Every monk who was a member of a royal family is identified in such a manner.

The author’s de-emphasis on “religious” explanations for religious history in Japan is intended to counterbalance writers who rely too much on such explanations. Citing the notable effect of D.T. Suzuki’s presentation of Zen Buddhism to the West (absurdist, gnomic, iconoclastic), and pointing out that “few Japanese Zen adherents, except those in the modern period and particularly those with access to the writings of Suzuki translated into Japanese” would recognize it, the author’s more social-science approach finds some justification. (146-7).

Performance theory is connected with the authors’ approach. A Cultural History of Japanese Buddhism doesn’t lay any groundwork for the reader as to what the doctrine or technique of applying performance theory are. It is a notoriously amorphous field of inquiry. One description of the approach states that “the performative nature of societies around the world, how events and rituals as well as daily life [are] all governed by a code of performance,” and one sees how this aligns with Deal and Ruppert’s approach in the present volume: religious acts are not generated by authenticity, but rather are ritualized and “for show.” Performance theory is difficult to understand as contributing much to an analysis of history, since all human action is outward, and thus all actions are, in a literal sense, “performed.” The negative application of the theory is applied in the present volume: performance theory supports the strategy of avoiding examination the motivations, hearts, or minds of individual in Japanese Buddhist history.

This is a strategy for writing history, and indicates the above-mentioned scholarly caution, perhaps, but also it tends to paint individuals as acting according to a plan (or with hindsight), rather than by caprice, calling, sincerity, compassion, or irrationality. Perhaps it doesn’t matter, in terms of cultural history, whether or not an effect was caused by religion or some other motivation, but only that the effect did occur.

With regard to Buddhist art, the authors acknowledge – particularly as to poetry – that the “undoubted” motivation for including Buddhist themes was a recognition of the contrast between non-attachment and the “intoxication of those who made use of or found beauty in the linguistic arts” (102). Oddly – although in keeping with the author’s “non-religious” approach to religious art – the idea that such an aesthetic intoxication is meant exactly to advance individuals’ practice (e.g., through visualization) is never mentioned, with respect to poetry or any other art form.
- source : Buddhist Art News -

- reference -

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CLICK for more books !


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BUDDHISM & SHINTŌISM IN JAPAN
A-TO-Z PHOTO DICTIONARY OF JAPANESE RELIGIOUS SCULPTURE & ART

- source : Mark Schumacher



Digital Dictionary of Buddhism - 電子佛教辭典 / Edited by A. Charles Muller
sign in as guest
- source : www.buddhism-dict.ne

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2018/08/04

bansho togarashi red pepper Jizo

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- Jizo Bosatsu 地蔵菩薩 - ABC-List -
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banshoo Jizoo 蕃椒地蔵 Bansho "Red Pepper Jizo"
tongarashi Jizoo トンガラシ地蔵, とうがらし 唐辛子地蔵 Togarashi Jizo  

Tokyo, Akiruno, Haranomiya 東京都あきる野市原小宮101




People came here to pray for healing of a toothache or a swelling.
The small sanctuary has been removed to its present location in 1933.
On the 24th of October, the Special day of Jizo Bosatsu, there is a ritual held,
蕃椒地蔵尊祭.



The red pepper used comes from the nearby fields of 原小宮 Harakomiya.
They also bring red pepper from 内藤トウガラシ the fields of nearby Naito Shinjuku

蕃椒を一生食わねば長者になる

Red pepper was also used to ward off evil influence and even evil foxes bewitching people.
Burning red pepper as an offering will ward off the danger of fire.


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. toogarashi 唐辛子 Togarashi, Tongarashi, red pepper, hot pepper .
- Introduction - Capsicum annuum, roter Pfeffer, dried chili pepper -

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- Jizo Bosatsu 地蔵菩薩 - Introduction -

. Pilgrimages to Jizo Bosatsu 地蔵菩薩 - 地蔵霊場 Jizo Reijo .

. Legends about Jizo Bosatsu - 地蔵菩薩 .




. Join the Jizo Bosatsu Gallery - Facebook .



. O-Mamori お守り Amulets and Talismans .

. Japan - Shrines and Temples - ABC List .


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- - - #torarashijizo #redpepperjizo - - -
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2018/08/02

Jigoku hell paintings

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. jigoku 地獄 the Buddhist Hell .
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. jigokue, jigoku-e 地獄絵 paintings of hell .
- Introduction -

- - - - - Paintings from a temple in Nagano

























photos from a facebook friend


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. jigokue, jigoku-e 地獄絵 paintings of hell .

. Japan - Shrines and Temples - Index .


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- - #jigokuhell #jigokupainting #jigokue -
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2018/08/01

raigozu Amida coming at death

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. Japan - Shrines and Temples - Index .
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raigoo, raigō 来迎 Raigo, the soul on the way to paradise
"Decent of Amida Buddha", "Amida Coming over the Mountain"


- quote
Buddhist Art and Amida Raigo Triads
This topic may seem a bit difficult, but try to follow as best you can. It's about a certain type of Buddhist statue. Actually this type of statue does not appear alone, but as a set of three: in the center is a Buddha called Amida, and on either side sits an Bodhisattva-attendant, one named Seishi and one named Kannon.
This set is called an Amida Raigo Triad.

We will talk about what raigo means later, but before we begin, take a look at this Amida Raigo Triad from a temple called Joshoko-ji, in the mountains north of Kyoto.



- - - - - Paintings and Sculpture
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- - - - - Raigo and Sculpture
Buddhas are considered, like God, to be an Absolute existence and thus require no surrounding environment. Though Buddhas themselves need no enhancement, however, their followers, such as Buddhist angels or Bodhisattvas, sometimes are enriched with depictions of movement or surrounding atmosphere. Here too, however, we see the limitations of sculpture in depicting movement. On ancient Buddhist wall paintings, angels appear to be floating lightly through the heavens around the Buddha. But when these same kinds of angels were incorporated in sculpture and attached to the Buddha's halo, however, they lost their lightness and seemed to become more rigid. This is probably because of the innate differences between painting and sculpture.

The above may be one of the reasons that Japanese sculptors did not often try to incorporate surrounding environment into their sculptures. In the Heian Period, however, belief in the Pure Land spread, and people began to believe that after death they would be reborn in the Pure Land Paradise of Amida Buddha. As this belief spread, so too grew the desire to see expressions of the Pure Land in Buddhist sculpture. The result were images depicting Amida Buddha coming down from the far-off Pure Land Paradise to meet the souls of the dead and take them back with him to heaven. These images are called raigo, and usually had Amida in the center with an attendant on either side. This is the Amida Raigo Triad!

Scenes of this Amida Raigo Triad riding clouds, crossing mountains, and flying through the wind were easy to express through the medium of painting, but many difficulties arose when trying to express such scenes through sculpture, such as in the triad above. Why? Well, think about the nature of sculpture: it is impossible (or it was in those days) to create a sculpture that floats in mid-air. It is also difficult to express speed. To compensate, the sculptors of the Joshoko-ji triad tried to give the attendants a sense of tension and presence by depicting them leaning forward.

Towards the end of the Heian Period, perhaps reflecting changes in the society as a whole, artistic expression became more realistic, both in painting and sculpture. One area in which this can be seen is in the Raigo sculptures. The triad above from Joshoko-ji Temple is one of the earliest experiments in realism in a Raigo triad. Let's compare it with a painting of the same period.

- photo of Yushihachimanko Juhachika-in Temple
What are the differences in the way this Bodhisattva-attendant is portrayed in painting and in sculpture? In the painting, the central triad and their surrounding Bodhisattva ride upon clouds, and cross mountains rich with autumn color as they gradually make their descent. On the other hand, though the sculpture does not show the autumn mountains over which the triad is crossing, it does show all three figures on clouds, and the two attendants crouched on their knees are leaning forward, giving them the same sense of speed and presence within an environment that we see in the painting.
- source : Kyoto National Museum - Shiro Ito



. . . CLICK here for more Photos  !

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source : sendai-c.ed.jp...

木造阿弥陀如来・二十五菩薩像及び地蔵菩薩立像 - Sendai
Amida, 25 Bosatsu and Jizo statue

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source : enpukuji.co/homotsu...
Temple 円福寺 Enpuku-Ji-Tokyo

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Temple 即成院 Sokujo-In - Kyoto

. . . CLICK here for more Photos of statues !


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raigoozuu 来迎図 Raigozu, illustrations of the way to paradise



- quote -
Amida (Amitabha) Coming over the Mountain
The popular, Kamakura Period painting theme of "Amida Coming over the Mountain," usually shows the central image of Amida facing forward with both hands held over his breast. This pattern can be seen in the Zenrinji and Konkaikomyoji "Amida Coming over the Mountain" scrolls. In this scroll, however, Amida comes not over a mountain but across a valley, accompanied by six Bodhisattva attendants. He faces not forwards but to the left, with his right hand raised and his left hand down. Though this posture is atypical of "Amida Coming over the Mountain" paintings, it is common in other raigozu ("Decent of Amida Buddha" paintings). Since it contains no other narrative elements, such as the pious Buddhist on his deathbed awaiting Amida's salvation in the Chionin raigozu scroll, it can be categorized as a variation on the "Amida Coming over the Mountain" theme.
The composition of this work is well-balanced and its portrayal of the figures is elaborate and reverential. It can be counted among the representative Buddhist paintings of the Kamakura Period.
- source : Kyoto National Museum -

- Seated Amida (Amitabha) with Raigo Mudra, hand position of welcoming spirits of the dead.
- source : Kyoto National Museum -

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阿弥陀二十五菩薩来迎図 Amida and 25 Bosatsu coming
Temple 知恩院 Chion-In


source : chion-in.or.jp...

- quote -
Raigo of Amida (Amitabha) and Twenty-five Attendants
This outstanding work depicts Amida (Amitabha) and twenty-five attendants as they descend on clouds over steep mountains down from Heaven. They are on their way to meet a dead person, depicted in the bottom-right, to accompany back to Heaven. This scene is known as "Rapid Descent," because of the especially swift appearance of the clouds. Flying clouds and the depiction of figures and garments in gold are characteristic of Buddhist paintings in the Late-Kamakura Period.
This scene depicts
jo-bon jo-sho (first class, upper birth), the highest state of death, evident from the dead person seated upright in front of a sutra scroll and the pagoda in the sky in the upper-right of the painting. The mountains in the background are high, but their smooth contour lines produce a gentle effect typical of the Yamato-e paintings. Though the scene depicted in this work is imaginary, its elements of landscape expression are impressive.
- source : Kyoto National Museum -


. Chion-In 知恩院 / 智恩院 .
Higashiyama-ku, Kyoto


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観経九品来迎と鳳凰堂来迎図 Byodo-In
平等院鳳凰堂



. 平等院 Byodo-In - The Phoenix Hall in Uji .


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. 高野山 Koyasan, Mount Koya, Wakayama .


高野山聖衆来迎図

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来迎図 by 濱田隆 Hamada Takashi
日本の美術 No273 - 1989年



. . . CLICK here for more Photos  !


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- Further reference by Mark Schumacher, Buddhist Statuary
- 25 Bodhisattva (Nijūgo Bosatsu, Nijugo Bosatsu, 二十五菩薩) -
- Amida Buddha 阿弥陀如来 -
- Apsaras - 雲中供養菩薩 - serving Amida Buddha -

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- - - - - H A I K U - - - - -

. kiraigoo 鬼来迎 (きらいごう) "Welcoming the Demons" .
kigo for late summer
..... Oni Mai 鬼舞"Demon's Dance"
Bon-Kyogen dance performed on the 16th of July, at the temple 広済寺 Hozai-Ji in Chiba.


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. Japanese Legends - 伝説 民話 昔話 – ABC-List .

................................................................................. Aomori 青森県 
梵珠山 Mound Bonjusan (486 m)

go raigoo sama 御来迎様 / go toomyoo 御灯明 heavenly light
On the 26th day of the seventh lunar month, the moon in its last quarter looks almost like a boat and the local people see it like the 阿弥陀三尊 Triad of Amida, Seishi and Kannon.
To pray to the three, villagers climb to the temple on Mount Bonjusan and pray the whole night.


- Kannon temple at Mount Bonjusan

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bakemono 化物 monster / raigoobashira 来迎柱
A young man once stayed over night at an old temple where monsters live. From below the Raigobashira pillar there came a monster, mumbling obosaru obosau オボサルオボサル, so he picked it up and carried it back home. Next morning he saw that it was a bag full of big and small gold coins.


- source : dannoh.or.jp/history... -
檀王法林寺 Dannō-hōrinji, Temple Danno-Horin-Ji, Kyoto 来迎柱

raigoubashira :
Two or four-circular pillars right and left at each corner of the Buddhist altar to define the most sacred place in a temple where Buddhist images are enshrined.
- JAANUS




................................................................................. Ibaraki 茨城県 
常総市 Joso city

. kitsune densetsu 狐 伝説 fox legends .
In the district of 飯沼郷 Iinuma at the temple 弘経寺 Gugyo-Ji there was a priest well versed in religious discussions, but in fact it was a fox. Another priest wanted to expose this and told the fox/priest he would give him anything he wanted.
The fox said he wanted to see Amida. The real priest told the fox that he could see Amida, but he should not pray to it, since he would then die.
But when the apparition of Amida Raigo came down from heaven, the fox was overwhelmed and begun to pray. And there - he fell down dead immediately.



................................................................................. Nagano 長野県 

Ajari-ike 阿闍梨池 pond of the Ajari
. Higo Ajari 肥後阿闍梨 / 備後阿闍 the Ajari of Higo, Acharya of Higo.
Kooen, Kōen 皇円 Saint Koen and his faith in 弥勒菩薩 Miroku Bosatsu.



................................................................................. Nara 奈良県 

. Temple Taimadera 当麻寺 / 當麻寺 and princess 中将姫 Chujo .
Princess Chujo was a nun at temple Taimadera. She prayed to Amida for her Raigo and six days later, she died and her Mandala was completed.



................................................................................. Tochigi 栃木県 

. tanuki 狸 - mujina 狢 - racoon dog, badger legends .
An old Tanuki had lived at the temple 茂林寺 Morin-Ji, taking care of the tea kettles. Once he fell asleep and his tail begun to show, so the priest now knew he was not a human and threw him out of the temple. To show his gratitude for the many years of his stay, the Tanuki showed the others an apparition of
釈迦来迎 Shaka Raigo, Shakyamuni coming down and died.
The priest then made a grave for the Tanuki and put the lid of the tea kettle on top of it.


source : matsui-ikuo.jp/blog...
- 茶席 釈迦来迎図 -


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- reference : Nichibun Yokai Database -

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. Oojoyooshuu, Ōjōyōshū 往生要集 Ojoyoshu, Ojo Yoshu .
by Genshin 源信  (942-1017), Eshin Soozu 恵心僧都 Eshin Sozu
dai oojoo 大往生 daiojo - sudden death
pokkuri  ぽっくり sudden death

. Japan - Shrines and Temples - Index .


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- - #raigozu #raigo #amidaraigo #amidatriad -
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2018/05/10

priests speaking Chinese

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. Japan - Shrines and Temples - Index .
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Japanese priests speaking Chinese

- quote -
Does anyone know of any sources mentioning the use of spoken Chinese
in Kamakura Zen circles?


Tachi notes that in the late Heian period, there was no opportunity to study vernacular Chinese in Japan. But he lists up several monks who traveled to China, among them Kakua (who learned to speak Chinese while being in Japan), Eisai/Yōsai (who probably spoke Chinese, although there is no written proof to support this), and Shunjō, who again learned spoken Chinese while in China and apparently used it later for rituals that he instituted at Sennyūji. Since Eisai invited Shunjō to Kennin-ji, there is a certain possibility that he taught spoken Chinese to its monks. 260-261

Whether Dōgen was able to witness rituals conducted in Chinese at Kennin-ji is unclear, but there is a document showing that he studied with Shunjō. He may have used this opportunity to familiarize himself with spoken Chinese before traveling to China. 262

Rankei Dōryū did not speak Japanese, in his temples (Jufuku-ji, Jōraku-ji and Kenchō-ji), he apparently used Chinese for his lectures and in ritual life. It should be noted that Dōryū was accompanied by a couple of younger monks, and that there is evidence that a certain number of other Chinese monks were traveling to Japan at this time (1240s). 263

However, there is an episode from the recorded sayings of Dōryū showing that, while he taught in Chinese, he could not expect his disciples to understand, and pointed them to a Japanese monk for further explanation in their own language. Tachi emphasizes that this episode belongs to the early stage after the founding of Kenchōji, and that Dōryū, who lived in Japan for 33 years, subsequently learned the language. The use of sōrō in his recorded sayings bears testimony to his efforts in this regard, as does a passage from the record of Mugaku Sogen. In other words, in later stages of his Japanese career, Dōryū apparently taught in the Japanese language, but continued to use Chinese on occasions of formal teaching, such as in his jōdō and shōsan. 263-265

Later records show, however, that even after decades, the teaching delivered in Chinese was not understood by the monks, and added information in Japanese was necessary. 266-267 Even close attendants of the Chinese masters at Kenchō-ji were not able to follow conversations in Chinese and used written exchanges to communicate with the master. 268

The same holds for Mugaku Sogen: he used a Japanese monk conversant in Chinese to have him explain his teachings to the assembly. All in all, Tachi finds that the Chinese masters in Kenchō-ji up to the fifth generation used Chinese for their teaching, esp. on formal occasions, but had to have it translated to the assembly in order for their larger audience to understand it. 269-270.

What about the language capacities of the monks who went to China? Kakua had no oppotunity to learn spoken Chinese before his travels. Eisai may have acquired some basic capacities in his two months in Hakata before his first trip, and Dōgen at Kennin-ji and Sennyū-ji. Enni Ben'en again probably studied basic spoken Chinese with a merchant in Hakata. All of them achieved a certain degree of fluency while in China. There were others, however, who never learned spoken Chinese. 272-273

It is unclear whether Dōgen used Chinese in his formal, jōdō teachings. What is obvious is that he often quotes Chinese cases without kundoku transformation in the kana Shōbō genzō - which may be taken as evidence that he would have delivered them in Chinese in his verbal teaching. But there is no hard evidence to prove this. 274-275

A later source, dating 1382, however, shows that Japanese monks with knowledge of spoken Chinese from their travels to the Yuan empire used it in their formal lectures. Again, the source also shows that such teaching was not understood by the larger part of the assembly. 275

In general, it can be said that monasteries tried to emulate the Chinese model of ritual life as far as possible, even if this meant that many monks would not understand what was being said.

- source : pmjs listserve -


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Tamamura Kozaburo (1856-1923?) - 1883-1900.


. Japanese priests - Introduction .

. Famous Buddhist Priests - ABC-List .


. Japan - Shrines and Temples - Index .


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- - #speakingchinese -
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2018/05/08

Jichi, Jitchi Juji Bosatsu

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. Japan - Shrines and Temples - Index .
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Jichi Bosatsu 十地菩薩 Juji - 10 stages of a Bodhisattva
十地菩薩誓 / 菩薩の十地



- quote
十地(じっち、じゅうじ)は、
菩薩が修行して得られる菩薩五十二位の中、下位から数えて第41番目から第50番目の位をいう。十廻向の上位であり等覚より下位にあたる。上位から法雲・善想・不動・遠行・現前・難勝・焔光・発光・離垢・歓喜の10位がある。

仏智を生成し、よく住持して動かず、あらゆる衆生を荷負し教化利益する様子が、大地が万物を載せ、これを潤益(にょうやく)することに似ているから「地」と名づく。

法雲地(ほううんじ)
智慧波羅蜜を成就して修惑を断じ、無辺の功徳を具足して無辺の功徳水を出生して虚空を大雲で覆い清浄の衆水を出だすためにいう。平等の原理と差別の人間とが一体となった、平等即差別、差別即平等の真如の世界。

善想地(ぜんそうじ)
力波羅蜜を成就して修惑を断じ、十力を具足し一切処において可度不可度を知り、よく説法する位。一切の修行を完成した大慈大悲の菩薩が、真理の世界から具体的な事実の世界に働きかけ個々差別の衆生を救済する。

不動地(ふどうじ)
願波羅蜜を成就して修惑を断じ、無相観を作(な)し、任運無功用に相続する位。大慈大悲の心を起す。

遠行地(おんぎょうじ)
方便波羅蜜を成就して修惑を断じ、大慈悲心を発し二乗の自度を遠離する位。十十無尽の境地に入る。この位は第二阿僧祇劫の行を終えたとする。

現前地(げんぜんじ)
智慧波羅蜜を成就して修惑を断じ、最勝智慧を発し染浄の差別なきを現前せしめる位。不退転の位で決して後戻りせず、必ず仏になる確信を得る。

難勝地(なんしょうじ)
極難勝地ともいい、禅定波羅蜜を成就して修惑を断じ、真俗二智の行相互いに違異なるを和合せしめる位。四諦の法門の外に大乗の法門を学び、利他行に取り組む。

焔光地(えんこうじ)
焔慧地ともいい、精進波羅蜜を成就して修惑を断じ、智慧を熾盛に光らしめる位。個々の物に対する執着心を離れ、その功徳として四方を照らす。

発光地(はっこうじ)
忍辱波羅蜜を成就して修惑を断じ、諦察法忍を得て智慧を顕発する位。精進の結果、その功徳として光を放ち十種の法明門を行う。

離垢地(りくじ)
戒波羅蜜を成就して修惑を断じ、毀犯の垢を除き清浄ならしめる位。十の善を行い、心の垢を離れる。

歓喜地(かんぎじ)
菩薩が既に初阿僧祇劫の行を満足して、聖性を得て見惑を破し、二空の理を証し大いに歓喜する位。仏法を信じ、一切衆生を救済しようとの立願を起こし、ついには自らも仏になるという希望を持ち歓んで修行する。
- source : wikipedia

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- quote -
Juji - In Japanese, the ten stages are:
1) kangiji (the stage of joy in benefiting oneself and others)
2) rikuji (the stage of freedom from all defilement)
3) hakkoji (the stage of emmitting the light of wisdom)
4) enneji (the stage of radiating wisdom)
5) nanshoji (the stage at which one is difficult to conquer)
6) genzenji (the stage at which reality is manifested before one's eyes)
7) ongyoji (the stage of going far)
8) fudoji (the stage of being immovable)
9) zenneji (the stage of attaining expedient wisdom)
10 hounji (the stage when one can spread the Dharma, like a cloud)


- source : Helen Josephine Baroni -



The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Zen Buddhism

Helen Josephine Baroni

Over 1,700 alphabetically-arranged entries cover the beliefs, practices, significant movements, organizations, and personalities associated with Zen Buddhism.


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. Roku Jizō 六地蔵 Roku Jizo, Six Jizo Statues .
Chiji Jizō 地持地蔵
and in a different naming:
Jizoo Bosatsu, Hooshuu Bosatsu, Hoosho Bosatsu, Hooinshu Bosatsu, Jichi Bosatsu und Kengoi Bosatsu.


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. O-Mamori お守り Amulets and Talismans .


. Fudō Myō-ō, Fudoo Myoo-Oo 不動明王 Fudo Myo-O
Acala Vidyârâja - Vidyaraja - Fudo Myoo .


. 薬師如来 Yakushi Nyorai 薬師如来 Bhaisajyaguru - ABC .


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. Pilgrimages to Fudo Temples 不動明王巡礼
Fudo Myo-O Junrei - Fudo Pilgrims - INTRODUCTION .



. Japan - Shrines and Temples - Index .


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- - #jichibosatsu #jichi -
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2018/05/06

Kyoto San Kobo Daishi

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Kyoto San Kobo 京都三弘法 Three Temples with Kobo Daishi



- quote -
The three most important temples related to Kobo Daishi
Getting the stamp of all three brings extra go-riyaku virtues.

東寺 To-Ji
仁和寺 Ninna-Ji
神光院 Jinko-In
.
弘法大師空海ゆかりの3ヶ寺を巡拝する三弘法まいりの風習は、江戸時代中期にはじまったとされ、正月の3日間にお参りすれば一年中の厄を逃れられるとされています。 また毎月21日の弘法大師の縁日に巡礼する習わしもあります。
さらに、
四国八十八ヶ所霊場を巡るお遍路が、道中安全を祈願して3ヶ寺で菅笠・金剛杖・納札箱を授かり、それらを身につけて巡礼する風習もありました。
三弘法まいり
の風習は昭和30年代頃にいったん廃れましたが、平成24年(2012)に「京都三弘法霊場会」が結成され、半世紀ぶりに復活しました。
- source : kyonoreijo.sakura.ne.jp...








納め札箱 - 金剛杖 - 菅笠のミニチュア
Miniatures of the bag for fuda, the staff and a special Henro straw hat
弘法三


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. Pilgrimages to Fudo Temples 不動明王巡礼
Fudo Myo-O Junrei - Fudo Pilgrims - INTRODUCTION .



. Japan - Shrines and Temples - Index .


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2018/05/04

Keisokuji Temples

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. - - - - - ABC-List of the Sennin Immortals Hermits - - - - - .
. sennin 仙人と伝説 Legends about Immortals .
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Keisokuji 鶏足寺 Keisoku-Ji Temple of the chicken legs

There are at least three temples with this name, each with a different legend about the naming.


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................................................................................. Hyogo 兵庫県 

鶏足寺 Keisoku-Ji



The temple was once located on mount 峰相山 Mineaiyama (244m) in the North-West of Himeji.
The temple was founded in 1348. Its history is written down in the records of Mineai-Ki 峯相記.
In 1348 a mendicant priest came here, heard the story from the old head priest of the temple and wrote it down.
It relates to Empress Jingu Kogo 神功皇后 and a prince from 新羅 Shinra (Shiragi), Korea, who wanted to promote Buddhism in Japan and founded the temple.

同書によれば、神功皇后が三韓征伐の際に連れてきた新羅の王子が草庵を建立したのが当寺の始まりで、その王子は3世紀ほど後の敏達天皇10年(581年)に没したという。
伝承によれば、「皇后が新羅の王子を連れ帰ることにした。王子は皇后に渡海を無事に終えて日域(日本のこと)に着けば、伽藍を建てたいと願い出たが、仏法の是非のわからない皇后は明答しなかった。皇后は帰国後、西域の不安に備えて副将軍の男貴尊を播磨にとどめおき、王子を預けた。その後、王子は、峯相山に草庵をつくって、千手陀羅尼を唱えた」とある。
鶏足寺には空也や書写山圓教寺の開山・性空も来山したと伝わる。『峯相記』が書かれた1348年頃には寺勢はすでに往古にくらべて衰退していたという。
天正6年(1578年)、中国攻めの羽柴秀吉に抵抗したため、全山焼き討ちにあい滅亡し、廃寺となった。
- reference source : wikipedia -


. shinkei 神鶏 sacred rooster .
- Nagata Shrine Kobe 長田神社  神戸 and Empress Jingu Kogo 神功皇后

According to the Nihon Shoki history, Nagata Shrine was founded by Empress Jingu Kogo 神功皇后 at the beginning of the 3rd century, when she came back from her war with Korea and was on her way to Kyoto.
Her boat suddenly came to a halt near the estuary of Buko river, now near Kobe port 武庫の水門 (Buko no suimon). When she prayed for an answer to this event, the deity appeared to her and asked to be venerated in this region. This happened through the oracle of the rooster, which sounded like the voice of the deity

鶏鳴の聞こゆる里は、吾が有縁の地なり
The place where the voice of the rooster is heard
shall be my home.




................................................................................. Shiga 滋賀県 

Keisokuji 鶏足寺 Temple Keisoku-Ji "Temple dedicated to the legs of a chicken"
Chicken Foot Temple.

This temple dates back to the Nara period. It is located in the North of Lake Biwako, on Mount 己高山 Kodakamiyama (923 m).
Priest Gyoki Bosatsu had build the temple Todai-Ji in Nara.
And then came the priest Taicho and founded the temple 飯福寺 Hanpuku-Ji in the direction to protect Todai-Ji from evil influence (kimon 鬼門).

The main statue of this temple is 十一面観音 Juichimen Kannon with 11 heads. It was placed in a temple named 観音寺 Kannon-Ji, founded by Gyoki in 735).
Next there was priest Saicho, founder of Mount Hieizan. He traveled in the footsteps of Gyoki for a while and came to this temple.
On his way he heard the voice of a bird (rooster - kei) and saw footprints (soku) of the animal.
He followed the footprints and found a run-down temple with a statue of Kannon. Now the name of the temple was changed to
Keisoku-Ji.
It seems the original temple was on top of the mountain, but Keisoku-Ji is now at the food of Mount Kodakamiyama.
The old temple building was lost to fire in 1933.
In the area is also the Shinto shrine 与志漏神社 Yoshiro Jinja with a 薬師堂 Yakushi-Do Hall.



Now the temple is famous for the red autumn leaves.

- quote -
The temple was closed and abandoned after the end of Edo Period, however it’s been managed and maintained by local residents, and it’s now one of most important cultural properties and popular tourist attractions in the prefecture.
- source and photos : jw-webmagazine.com/keisoku-ji... -

滋賀県長浜市 Shiga Nagahama


. Taichoo, Taichō 泰澄上人 Saint Taicho Shonin .
and a legend from Shiga

. Gyooki Bosatsu 行基菩薩 Gyoki Bosatsu (668 - 749).

. Saicho, Dengyo Daishi 伝教大師最澄 (766 - 822) .





................................................................................. Tochigi 栃木県 


鶏足寺 Keisokuk-Ji "Temple dedicated to the legs of a hen"
本尊:七仏薬師 Shichibutsu Yakushi
足利市小俣町2748-1 // 2748 Omatachō, Ashikaga-shi, Tochigi

. Shichibutsu Yakushi 七仏薬師 / 七佛薬師 Seven Yakushi Statues .


source : .city.ashikaga.tochigi.jp/site/bunkazai...

The statue is 52 cm high. End of Heian or beginning of Kamakura period.
In the compound of Keisoku-Ji was a hall dedicated to the Buddha of Medicine, 医王堂本堂.

- quote -
Keisokuji Temple
Over 1,100 years ago, this temple was opened by Joe Shonin (a Buddhist priest of Todaiji Temple in Nara Pref.).
At first,
the name was Sesonji Temple (Shakyamuni Temple). During the Tengyo-no-Ran (Tengyo War) (939-940), Hidesato Fujiwara (the head of a powerful family of the Heian period) overthrew Masakado Taira (a general of the Heian period) using a curse and the emperor gave this temple the name Keisokuji.

- - - - - The legend of Keisokuji Temple
In 939, Masakado Taira( a general of the Heian period) started the war that betrayed the Imperial Court.
During the next year, Hidesato Fujiwara fought with Masakado, obeying the emperor's instructions.
At this time, the highest Buddhist priest of the Sesonji Temple prayed for Hidesato's victory. Using Buddha's teaching, he offered the neck of Masakado which was made of clay. He kept praying every day and every night.
Finally on the eighth day, he fell asleep.
In his dream, he found a hen who had three legs treading on Masakado's bloody neck.
When he awoke to the hen's laughing voice, he saw Masakado's clay neck had three footprints clearly stamped in it.
In the 17th day of the full moon, Hidesato beat Masakado.
The name of Sesonji Temple has thus changed to Keisokuji Temple.
- source : japanguides.net/tochigi...-

. Yakushi Nyorai 薬師如来 - Legends .


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. sennin 仙人と伝説 Legends about Immortals .


. Japan - Shrines and Temples - Index .


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- - #keisokuji -
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2018/04/18

Tachidaruma statue Gifu Tounji

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Tachidaruma, Tachi-Daruma 立達磨 / 立ち達磨 Standing Daruma Statue



This is the largest Daruma statue in Japan!
It is in Hida, Gifu 岐阜県飛騨市(旧吉城郡神岡町) and 16,5 m high.
It was made in 1973 in July.

The mountain belongs to the temple 曹洞宗補陀山洞雲寺 Toun-Ji of the Soto Zen Sect.
It was founded around 1400 and became the family temple of the 江馬氏 Ema clan around 1600.
The temple is better knows as だるま堂 Daruma-Do Hall.
There is a huge collection of Daruma artifacts in the hall, now attracting many visitors.




- quote
立ち達磨(たちだるま)は、岐阜県飛騨市(旧吉城郡神岡町)にある達磨像である。立ち達磨とは、達磨大師の立たれた姿である(一般には達磨は座禅した姿が多い)。 観音山の中腹に鎮座しており、同山の麓にある曹洞宗補陀山洞雲寺の所有となる。 発願主の筆頭は同寺の先々代住職大森雅道老師 通称『日本一の立ち達磨』
「町のシンボルにしよう」と達磨像の話が持ち上がった。 達磨大師は曹洞宗の原点の一つだが、別のきっかけもあった。 浩潤球学(1877-1953)という高僧である。俗姓を丘といい、丘球学としても知られる。球学老師は明治27年に洞雲寺二十世住職となった大潤(丘)宗潭に随侍していた。宗潭老師は伊豆の修禅寺住職となり、のちに永平寺副貫首も務める。 球学老師はよく洞雲寺にきて、町の住民に戒を授ける「授戒会」で「戒師」を務め、昭和28年に遷化されたが、住民たちは今も「球学さん」と、よくその名を覚えている。  その球学老師は、よく筆を執り、数多くの絵や書を神岡の人々に手渡したという。絵では観音様の次に達磨太子の絵が多く、そのことを町の人たちは思い出し、達磨像にしようという話になった。  またこの立ち達磨をきっかけに、昭和59年に全日本だるま研究会初代会長・今泉實平氏が三千点に及ぶ達磨コレクションの寄進を申し出た。すると建物は寄進を申し出る人もいた。これにより洞雲寺内に「達磨堂」が完成。展示を行っている。  昭和30年一月、江戸木遣りが神岡に伝授された記念に、町の人々が行列を組み、横2m、縦1mの額を同寺の金毘羅堂に奉納。以降、「初金毘羅」は盛大になり、達磨市が出て達磨供養も行われるようになった。
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高さ8.9mの銅製の立達磨像。台座を含めると16.5mに及ぶ。
使用した銅約8tは、三井金属鉱業神岡鉱山から産出された銅鉱を使用。
1973年(昭和48年)6月3日建立。
「だるま」は禅宗の「初祖」として崇敬されている菩提達磨が壁に向かって九年の座禅を行ったことによって手足が腐ってしまったという伝説がある。ここから、手足のない形状で置物が作られるようになり、丸みを帯びた「だるま」が一般的となった。「立ち達磨」は菩提達磨が立位した銅像で、日本一の大きさを誇り、極めて珍しい。
- source : wikipedia

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Tachidaruma loves the Statue of Liberty

TLSTプロジェクト(Tachidaruma Loves the Statue of Liberty)
立ちだるま、NYへ熱視線
- reference source : sotoday.fun -

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There is another temple named Toun-Ji in Shirakawa, Gifu.

洞雲寺(とううんじ)は、岐阜県加茂郡白川町にある曹洞宗の寺院。山号は大龍山

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2018/04/14

Sennin 16 Saga no In Kunshi

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Saga no In Kunshi 嵯峨の隠君子 / 嵯峨隠君子

He is Nr. 16 of the
. 日本の仏仙人16人 - The 16 Buddhist Immortals of Japan .

He was 嵯峨天皇の隠君子 the son of Emperor Saga Tenno.
He entered priesthood as a child before becoming an adult. As he grew older, his hair grew white while he kept his childlike figure.

Not much is known about him.

He lived during the time of Sugawara no Michizane (845 - 903) - Butsusen Nr. 15.
He lived as a hermit in 西山 Nishiyama. (Or maybe in 南山 Nanzan).
He liked to play the 琴 Koto.
He also got along well with the local Onigami Kishin 鬼神 Demon Deity.

老君子 / 隠れ若子

. Emperor Saga 嵯峨天皇 (786 – 842) .
Saga was a scholar of the Chinese classics. He was also a renowned as a skillful calligrapher.
According to legend, he was the first Japanese emperor to drink tea.

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南山白頭翁 Nanzan Hakuto Okina
Old man with white hair from Mount Nanzan

He was 98 years old and still had full white hair, a face fresh like a peach.
Nanzan is another name for 吉野山 Yoshinoyama.
The old man lived in a small hut, he was not a farmer nor a merchant.
He only had a desk and a bamboo basket.
He had no money and no food provisions.


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