2017/12/31

Welcome to Paradise !

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Welcome to Gokuraku 極楽 the Buddhist Paradise !

I will try and introduce information about the life of Shakyamuni Buddha
and a glossary of terms, many of them are kigo for Japanese haiku.

Paradise, Heaven 極楽 gokuraku and Hell 地獄  jigoku

ano yo あの世 the other world
haraiso はらいそ paradise (paraiso)
higan 彼岸 the other shore
joodo 浄土 Paradise of Amida
ka no yo かの世 the other world
. meido 冥土 冥途 the other world / yomi 黄泉 "the yellow springs" .
paradaisu パラダイス paradise, Paradies
raise 来世 afterlife, the world to come
rakuen 楽園 paradise, earthly paradise
shigo no sekai 死後の世界 the world after death
takai 他界 to die, to pass into the other world
tengoku 天国 heaven
tenjoo 天上 "up there", heaven

. toogen 桃源 Shangri-La シャングリラ, Arcadia, Eden - Toogenkyoo 桃源郷 fairyland, .
桃源郷 lit. Peach Blossom Valley

. Tokoyo no Kuni 常世国, 常世の国 The Eternal Land (of Shintoism) .
yomi 黄泉 the yellow springs, die Gelben Quellen
yuutopia ユートピア Utopia


And in the limbo toward the other world here are a lot of vengeful spirits, monsters and goblins.

. jigoku 地獄 Buddhist hell - Introduction .
naraku ならく / 奈落 hell, hades

. jigoku no oni 地獄の鬼 demons of the Buddhist hell .


. Pilgrimages in Japan - Introduction .


. - - - Glossary of Terms - - - . - not yet in the ABC index.


Your comments and help are most welcome!

Gabi Greve
GokuRakuAn 極楽庵, Japan



. Gokuraku Joodoo 極楽浄土 Gokuraku Jodo, Paradise in the West of Amida Nyorai .



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- - - - - ABC - Table of Contents - - - - -

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- FFF - / - GGG - / - HHH - / - I I I - / - JJJ -

- KK KK - / - LLL - / - MMM - / - NNN - / - OOO -

- PPP - / - QQQ - / - RRR - / - SSS - / - TTT -

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. Reference, LINKS - General Information .


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. Join the Jizo Bosatsu Gallery - Facebook .






. Join the Kannon Bosatsu Gallery on facebook .





. Join the Onipedia Demons on facebook .


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2017/12/29

General Information

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General Information and Reference


- - - - - - - - - - Latest Additions - - -

. Darumapedia - Temples and Gokuraku .

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A Tourist Guidebook to Paradise  
GokuRaku no Kankoo Annai 極楽の観光案内 by 西村公朝 Nishimura Kocho



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- - - - - - - - - - External LINKS - - -


Buddhism in Japan - Buddha Statues - an extensive guide

A-TO-Z PHOTO DICTIONARY
source : Mark Schumacher



Buddhist Art News - Japan
News on Buddhist art, architecture, archaeology, music, dance, and academia.
- source : buddhistartnews.wordpress.com




地獄と極楽がわかる本 - to understand hell and heaven
source : futabasha.co.jp

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A Cultural History of Japanese Buddhism
William E. Deal, Brian Ruppert




- quote -
Review by Jonathan Ciliberto
Intended for “upper-level undergraduate and graduate students as well as scholars,” A Cultural History of Japanese Buddhism fills a gap by presenting largely recent work of Japanese and Western scholars on Japanese Buddhism. The authors consider prior books on Buddhist cultural history as largely from Indian and Tibetan viewpoints. The particular presumptions, intellectual models, or even prejudices of such positions (e.g., to view Japanese Buddhism as a distant reflection, or a corruption, of a continental original) are seen as obstacles to an accurate history of Buddhism’s influence and interaction with Japan.

The great value of the book is to direct readers to approaches and theories perhaps overlooked by more general histories of Buddhism. Each chapter includes its own bibliography and notes, making the book useful for study of narrow sections of Japan’s history.

Published in 2015, many summaries of and citations to recent scholarship are incorporated. Although a relatively short volume (~200 pages, absent notes and biolographies), it includes a great deal of purely historical information surrounded by “cultural history,” covering Japan from protohistory to the present. The book includes a character glossary.

Some themes that run through the book are: that Buddhism in Japan was not a monolithic “ism,” and that individual sects were not exclusive of one another but rather interacted in practice and doctrine; the complex interaction of indigenous religion with Buddhism; Buddhist lineages in Japan as the agents of cultural influence (e.g., “lineages had already begun to pursue the possibility of an ultimate deity”).

Many chapters include subsections on women and gender in Japanese Buddhism, including a fascinating section on the link between literary salons “established in women’s circles” and often held within monasteries and creating an environment for “the evolving and intimate connection between monastic Buddhists and their lay supporters” (102-4). More generally, these sections illustrate the important influence of women on Japanese Buddhism throughout its history. The book also devotes substantial attention to religion in Japan in the modern period, a much-needed resource.

One instance of a simplification of Japanese history that the authors seek to correct is the view that Shinto and Buddhism remained largely separate strands. While the doctrine of honji-suijaku is relatively well-known, the book reveals in greater depth the complex interplay between the two religions by reference to the writings of recent (and less-recent) scholars.

Another attempt to reveal subtlety beyond a stock scholarly view concerns (in the Heian period) the “limitations of the ‘rhetoric of decadence’ [that] some scholars attribute to ‘old’ Buddhism”. The authors offer Minamoto no Tamenori’s (d. 1101) Sanbo’e as an attempt “to incorporate other parts of the populace” beyond the aristocracy. This undercuts the claim that “practitioners of the ‘old’ Buddhism were completely unconcerned with those outside their walls” as a cause of the emergence of “religious heroes” (like Kukai and Nichiren) (88-90). (That said, the ongoing theme of Japanese Buddhists, unsatisfied with the quality of teaching in Japan, who sought original texts and more authoritative teachers in China, does support the basis of a kind of “decadent” Buddhism.)

It is important to have a sense of what “cultural history” is, or what it intends to do, before considering the authors’ approach to a history Japanese Buddhism. Given that cultural history includes an extremely wide set of approaches, determining the present authors’ use of it as a method is largely about picking out strands from the mass of possibilities. (One author refers to “the notorious difficulty of organizing the disorderly profusion of intradisciplinary, cross-disciplinary, and varying national-intellectual meanings and understandings of the “culture concept” into anything resembling consensual form” [Geoffrey Eley, “What Is Cultural History?”, New German Critique, No. 65, Cultural History/Cultural Studies, Spring – Summer, 1995, pp. 19-36].)

While the authors don’t set out their approach, generally in the present volume they tend to consider Buddhism in Japan less in terms of its religious or spiritual character or content and more as a generator of social and political forms. Or, rather, it is unspoken that religion was the driving force in developing myriad cultural effects in Japan, but the book doesn’t linger on religion itself, as it does on these effects.

It is unclear whether this approach is based on the position described by the scholar of medieval Japanese Buddhism Bernard Faure when he refers to an “absolute standpoint” as a “contradiction in terms” (Faure, Visions of Power (2000), 9). (Faure is frequently cited in A Cultural History of Japanese Buddhism.) That is: there are no “religious” standpoints motivating individuals, in terms of absolute or ideal concepts, or at least that taking direction from such standpoints is delusional.

Faure’s view (following from Le Goff) is that “literary and artistic works of art (and, in the case of religion, ritual practice) do no represent any eternal, unitary reality, but rather are the products of the imagination of those who produce them” (Faure, 10, emphasis added). A similar view of religion advocates a “History of Religions approach – trying to figure out how and why certain forms of religiosity took shape the way they did instead of assuming that it was religious experience that made religion” (Alan Cole, Fathering Your Father (2009), xi).

Thus, Faure and historians who follow his approach write religious history absent of religion as an internal activity, aimed at self-improvement, transcendental, or altruistic. Or perhaps this approach simply considers individual “religious” experiences too personal, too psychologically opaque, to form the basis of historical inquiry, and thus discards consideration of such experiences as “religious” in nature, and instead consider them in mainly terms of materiality and politics.

The authors of A Cultural History of Japanese Buddhism follow more directly the historian Kuroda Toshio’s sociopolitical functionalist approach. While occasionally offering descriptions of Buddhist practice and doctrine, the book largely focuses on: state-control over and connection with Buddhism in Japan (“Buddhism was firmly controlled by the state” during the early period (66)); art as narrative or purely visual, rather than a function of practice (99); Buddhist practice as a means of gaining influence or power at court, and the claim that “undoubtably” the introduction of esoteric lineages was related to the royal court’s interest in such power(106); that the court drove ritual (“Pivotal organizational and philosophical changes begin to arise in the royal court with the consolidation of the annual court ceremonies” (88, 106)).

Throughout, the authors take pains to connect influential Buddhists with the court: “The Daigoji halls, like those in other major monasteries, primarily housed scions of Fujiwara and Minamoto heritage” (107); “The Shingon lineages, from a very early point, […] had a special connection with the royal line” (108); “the intimate association between Tendai’s Enryakuji (Hiei) and the leading Fujiwaras” (108). Every monk who was a member of a royal family is identified in such a manner.

The author’s de-emphasis on “religious” explanations for religious history in Japan is intended to counterbalance writers who rely too much on such explanations. Citing the notable effect of D.T. Suzuki’s presentation of Zen Buddhism to the West (absurdist, gnomic, iconoclastic), and pointing out that “few Japanese Zen adherents, except those in the modern period and particularly those with access to the writings of Suzuki translated into Japanese” would recognize it, the author’s more social-science approach finds some justification. (146-7).

Performance theory is connected with the authors’ approach. A Cultural History of Japanese Buddhism doesn’t lay any groundwork for the reader as to what the doctrine or technique of applying performance theory are. It is a notoriously amorphous field of inquiry. One description of the approach states that “the performative nature of societies around the world, how events and rituals as well as daily life [are] all governed by a code of performance,” and one sees how this aligns with Deal and Ruppert’s approach in the present volume: religious acts are not generated by authenticity, but rather are ritualized and “for show.” Performance theory is difficult to understand as contributing much to an analysis of history, since all human action is outward, and thus all actions are, in a literal sense, “performed.” The negative application of the theory is applied in the present volume: performance theory supports the strategy of avoiding examination the motivations, hearts, or minds of individual in Japanese Buddhist history.

This is a strategy for writing history, and indicates the above-mentioned scholarly caution, perhaps, but also it tends to paint individuals as acting according to a plan (or with hindsight), rather than by caprice, calling, sincerity, compassion, or irrationality. Perhaps it doesn’t matter, in terms of cultural history, whether or not an effect was caused by religion or some other motivation, but only that the effect did occur.

With regard to Buddhist art, the authors acknowledge – particularly as to poetry – that the “undoubted” motivation for including Buddhist themes was a recognition of the contrast between non-attachment and the “intoxication of those who made use of or found beauty in the linguistic arts” (102). Oddly – although in keeping with the author’s “non-religious” approach to religious art – the idea that such an aesthetic intoxication is meant exactly to advance individuals’ practice (e.g., through visualization) is never mentioned, with respect to poetry or any other art form.
- source : Buddhist Art News -

- reference -

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CLICK for more books !


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BUDDHISM & SHINTŌISM IN JAPAN
A-TO-Z PHOTO DICTIONARY OF JAPANESE RELIGIOUS SCULPTURE & ART

- source : Mark Schumacher



Digital Dictionary of Buddhism - 電子佛教辭典 / Edited by A. Charles Muller
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- source : www.buddhism-dict.ne

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2017/06/04

Enma Emmado Edo

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. Gofunai 御府内八十八ヶ所霊場 88 Henro Temples in Edo .
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. Enma Ten, Enma Oo 閻魔天、閻魔王 Emma King of Hell .

Temples in his honor are usually called Enmadoo 閻魔堂 Emma-Do, Emma Hall.



The statue of Enma is 3,5 m high and 4,5 m wide. (Said to be the largest in Japan.)
If people throw coins in the box for offerings (saisenbako 賽銭箱), the halo in the back of the statue lights up and flickers for a while. The statue is therefore called
ハイテク闇魔 Hi-Tech Enma.

. Fukagawa "深川ゑんま堂" Fukagawa Emma-Do .
Gofunai Henro Nr. 74 - Hoojoo-In 法乗院 Hojo-In
- 賢台山 Kentaizan 法乗院 Hojo-In 賢法寺 Kenpo-Ji
法乗院えんま堂 Hojo-In Enma-Do -
江東区深川2-16-3 / Kōtō ward, Fukagawa, 2 Chome−16-3

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Apart from this one, there are three important Emmado temples in Edo (introduced below)
江戸三大閻魔 / 江戸三閻魔

- 華徳院 Ketoku-In - Suginami
- 太宗寺 Taiso-Ji - Shinjuku
- 善養寺 Zenyo-Ji - Toshima


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Ketokuin 華徳院 Ketoku-In (Katoku-In)
- 称光山 華徳院 Ketoku-In  太宗寺 Taiso-Ji
杉並区松ノ木3-32-11 / Tokyo, Suginami, Matsunoki, 3 Chome 32-11
天台宗 Tendai sect


source : goshuin.net/edo3emma-ketokuin

It was founded in 下野国佐野 (now Tochigi, Sano town 栃木県佐野市)by . Ennin 円仁 - Jigaku Daishi 慈覚大師 / 慈覺大師 . - (794 – 864)
It was called 蔵前の閻魔堂 Kuramae no Enmado.

The main statue was made by 運慶蘇生 Unkei and is in the center. To its richt is a statue of the same wood of 奪衣婆 Datsueba, the "Hag of Hell", and to its left a statue of 本地化馬地蔵尊 made by 聖徳太子 Shotoku Taishi.

The temple and the statues burned down during the great earthquake in 1923.
The temple moved to its present location in 1929.
A new statue of Enma was given by 日光輪王寺


- HP of the temple:
- source : tesshow.jp/suginami -


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Taisooji 太宗寺 Taiso-Ji

- 霞関山 本覚院 太宗寺 Taiso-Ji
新宿区新宿2-9-2 / Tokyo, Shinjuku 2-9-2
浄土宗 Jodo Sect

The main statue is 阿弥陀如来 Amida Nyorai.


source : goshuin.net/edo3emma-taisoji

- History
Founded in 1596 at the beginning of the Oshu Kaido highway by priest 太宗 Taiso. One of the Six Jizo of Highways:
Nr. 03 - . Edo Roku Jizo 江戸六地蔵 The Six Jizō Bosatsu of Edo .

- Other Pilgrimages
新宿山之手七福神の布袋尊 Shinjuku - Shichifukujin - Hotei

- HP of the temple:
- source : tesshow.jp/shinjuku -



太宗寺不動堂 Fudo Hall



太宗寺塩かけ地蔵 Shiokake-Jizo -Jizo to throw salt at
When making a wish, people throw some salt on the statue. When the wish has been granted, they come back and throw even more salt at Jizo.

. Jizō - Jizo Bosatsu 地蔵菩薩 - Introduction .

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Zenyooji 善養寺 Zenyo-Ji

- 薬王山 Yakuozan 延寿院 善養寺 Zenyo-Ji
豊島区西巣鴨4-8-25 / Tokyo, Toshima, Nishisugamo, 4 Chome 8-25
Shingon sect

The main statue is 薬師如来 Yakushi Nyorai.


source : goshuin.net/edo3emma-zenyoji

This temple was founded around 830 by 慈覚大師 Jigaku Daishi in Uenoyama, as 上野東叡山寛永寺末 a sub-temple of the Ueno Kanei-Ji.
It was moved to 下谷区善養寺町 Shitaya, Zenyojicho around 1670. To make room for the railway it was moved to ist present location in 1912.
The wooden statue of Enma is about 3 meters high,

- HP of the temple:
- source : tesshow.jp/toshima -

. Ennin 円仁 - Jigaku Daishi 慈覚大師 / 慈覺大師 . - (794 – 864)

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There is another temple named 善養寺 Zenyo-Ji in Tokyo
Tokyo, Edogawa ward, Higashi-Koiwa 2-24-2

In the compound are various stone memorial monuments, like 石燈籠 stone lanterns and 宝篋印塔 grave markers.
The grave of the potter and painter 尾形乾山 Ogata Kenzan (1663 - 1743) is in the compound.
In the compound is also an old pine tree of more than 600 years, 影向のマツ Yogo no Matsu.


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- reference source : tesshow.jp/edo3enma_index -
- reference : 華徳院 -
- reference : 太宗寺 -
- reference : 善養寺 -

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. Juu Oo 十王, Juo, Ju-O - 10 Ten Kings of Hell .

. Pilgrimages in Edo - Tokyo .


- Koya San in Wakayama 和歌山 高野山 -

- Kobo Daishi Kukai 弘法大師 空海 (774 - 835) -


. Gofunai 御府内八十八ヶ所霊場 Pilgrimage to 88 Henro Temples in Edo .
- Introduction -

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. Join the Updates of Facebook ! .

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. Japan - Shrines and Temples - ABC .

. Welcome to Edo 江戸 ! – The Edopedia .

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2017/05/12

Guchikiki Jizo

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. Japan - Shrines and Temples - Index .
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guchikiki 愚痴聞き Guchi-kiki deities listening to complaints

Some deities have the special ability to listen to our complaints . . .
and they get more and more, as temples find they attract a lot of visitors.

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guchikiki Jizoo 愚痴聞き地蔵 Guchi-kiki Jizo listening to complaints

. Jizō - Jizo Bosatsu 地蔵菩薩 - ABC List .
- Introduction -



最福寺 Saifuku-Ji
京都府南丹市園部町



Ryuuzooji 龍蔵寺 Ryuzo-Ji




- HP of the temple 瀧塔山 龍蔵寺
山口県山口市吉敷1750 / Yamaguchi
- reference source : ryuzouji.org/guchikiki -


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愚痴聞き地蔵 - (わらべ)- Guchikiki-warabe
香炉 - Incense burner

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. . . CLICK here for more Photos !

- guchikikijizou
- Guchikiki Jizoson, with its right hand cupping its ear, as it listens to visitors complaints.
- Keiho-in Temple Guchi-kiki Jizo - Nagoya
- reference : guchikiki jizo -

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guchikiki Kannon ぐちきき観音 Kannon Bosatsu



延命山光福禅寺 Enmeizan Kofukuzen-Ji
千葉県市原市佐是1097
- reference source : sky.geocities.jp/koufukuzennji -


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. guchikiki Taishi ぐち聞き太子 Shotoku Taishi listening to complaints .

. O-Mamori お守り Amulets and Talismans .

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. Japan - Shrines and Temples - Index .


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- - #guchikikijizo #jizoguchikiki -
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2017/05/03

Eingakyo Sutra

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. Onipedia - 鬼ペディア - Oni Demons - ABC-List - .
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Eingakyoo 絵因果経 E-Inga-Kyo - Illustrated Sutra of Cause and Effect



Different parts of the Eingakyo scroll are available at various temples and museums.

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- quote -
National Institutes for Cultural Heritage:
"Eingakyo" is a set of eight painting scrolls created by adding paintings to "Kakogenzai Ingakyo
(Ryusho Gunabattara, translated in the mid Genga period (Sung) (fifth century)" consisting of four scrolls.
The list known as "Tenmeishouhin gonengogatsunanoka ruishushoujoukeinouhitsu mokuroku (天平勝寳五年五月七日類収小乗經納櫃目録)" of Shosoin Monjo has an item of "Gaiinkei nibujuurokkan (畫因果經二部十六巻) (two sets of 16 scrolls)" and this is the first appearance in Japanese literature. Another list known as "Heikatuhinhassai sichigatufutsukaruijuu toshoryoukeimokuroku (平勝寳八歳七月二日類従圖書寮經目録)" has an item of "Souingakeihatu Jusankan ichinichi tunonaka itchichitsue (繪因果經八(十三)巻 一(二)帙之中一帙繪)."
At that time, the creation of pictorial covers of Kyokan became popular at places where Sutras were copied when the relationship between the places and the painters deepened. It is significant that Buddhist paintings were understood in conjunction with the text expressions in "Eingakyo."

Existing "Eingakyo" from the Nara period are those held by Jobon Rendai-ji Temple (the first one of a set of two), Godai-ji Temple (the first one of a set of three), the old Masuda family (the first one of a set of four),
Tokyo Geijutsu Daigaku (the second one of a set of four) and
the Idemitsu Museum of Arts (the first one of a set of three).

The painting held at this museum is one of those that used to make up one scroll together with those held in Jobon Rendai-ji Temple and represent the last scene of "Shimon Shutsuyu" following the four scenes ("Kyoshibugei (競試武芸)," "Kanjyo Taishi (灌頂太子)," "Enbujukashiyui (閻浮樹下思惟)" and "Nouki (納妃)"). They represent those including scenes of Prince having a dialogue with Biku (a trainee Buddhist priest) after exiting the north gate and then Biku heading for the sky, of Prince coming back to the castle on a horse, of Udai (one of Shaka's disciples) talking to a king, of Prince meeting Biku, of a dialogue with Biku, of Prince and his wife watching Geiki singing and dancing to music and finally Prince asking King for permission to become a priest.

As each existing "Eingakyo" has unique expressions, it seems unlikely that they were created by the same painter in the same period. However, it seems this can be a valuable clue to looking into the situation of the Gakoshi (an institution to which painters belong) of the time.
This is a rare and extremely valuable work from the Nara period that still exists.

- Look at the scroll here :
- source : emuseum.jp/detail -


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mamono 魔物 demons and monsters from the scroll
They represent the deities of other religions which Shakyamuni encounters.
There are more than 30 Mamono appearing on the scroll. Some look very much like Oni.














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Joobon Rendaiji 上品蓮台寺 Temple Jobon Rendai-Ji

- quote -
The Illustrated Sutra of Cause and Effect from Jobon Rendai-ji
This sutra is called the
Sutra of Cause and Effect in the Past and Present (過去現在因果経 Kako genzai inga kyo),
more commonly known as the
Illustrated Sutra of Cause and Effect (J., E inga kyo).
The words of the sutra are copied in the lower half, while the upper half illustrates representative scenes described below. The story begins with the training of the historical Buddha Sakyamuni in his past lives, how he was freed suffering and delusion, and how he achieved enlightenment and became the Buddha. In other words, this sutra is somewhat like the Buddha's biography.

Putting aside these tales of his previous lives, Sakyamuni himself was born about 2,500 years ago in India as a prince, named Siddhartha. His family name was Gautama. His father was Suddhodana, the ruler of a small kingdom called Kapilavastu (on the boarder of present-day Nepal and India); his mother was Queen Maya. According to legend, he was born in the nearby garden of Lumbini. As a prince, Siddhartha spent his childhood and youth in comfort.

This sutra from Jobon Rendai-ji Temple in Kyoto starts from around the time the prince was ten years old. The young Siddhartha spent his time competing in skill and strength against his cousin Devadatta and his half-brother Nanda and always winning. The illustration here captures such a scene that demonstrates the prince's amazing abilities.
- photo -
Here, Siddhartha is about to shoot seven drum-shaped targets made of gold and silver. Since there are seven targets, at least seven arrows would usually be needed to hit all of them, but Siddhartha hits all seven with a single arrow!

According to legend, Prince Siddhartha one day ventured out of his castle from four gates-in the directions of east, south, west, and north-and on each occasion he encountered an old man, a sick man, a dead man, and a spiritual man. The image below represents the scene in which the prince leaves the castle from the south gate to see a sick man. The prince, who had been protected from the outside world, was deeply struck by this sight of illness, as he had never seen a sick person before.



The sutra also captures several other interesting scenes such as Siddhartha competing in a wrestling match and plowing a field to demonstrate his strength. The sutra itself was copied in a beautiful kaisho (formal style of calligraphy) in Japan during the Nara period (710-793). The colors used to paint the illustrations even today are surprisingly brilliant. Moreover, this manuscript not only represents one of the few existing examples of painting from the Nara period, but also served as the prototype of emaki (illustrated handscrolls), which became popular from the Heian period (710-793) on. Finally, there are very few eighth-century sutras from the East Asian Buddhist countries of China, Korea, and Japan that are illustrated and that are as well preserved as this wonderful work.
- source : Kyoto National Museum-
Text by Eikei Akao, Department of Fine Arts- 1998


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The Buddhist biographical scriptures that the ancient Japanese used were mainly those written in Chinese and even they were introduced as illustrated biographies. ‘Eingakyo( (Illustrated Sutra of Cause and Effect) is one of the most famous ancient works that was imported to Japan in the Nara Period (8th century AD).

- reference : Eingakyo -

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Joobon Rendaiji 上品蓮台寺 Temple Jobon Rendai-Ji
京都府京都市北区紫野十二坊町33-1 / 33-1 Murasakino Jūnibōchō, Kita-ku, Kyōto



It was built by 聖徳太子 Shotoku Taishi to venerate his mother.

The main statue is 延命地蔵菩薩 Enmei Jizo Bosatsu - Life-prolonging Jizo




- reference source : wikipedia -


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. jigoku no oni 地獄の鬼 demons of the Buddhist hell .

. Onipedia - 鬼ペディア - Oni Demons - ABC-List - .

. O-Mamori お守り Amulets and Talismans .

. Japan - Shrines and Temples - Index .


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[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]
- - #onipedia #eingakyo #causeeffectsutra -
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2017/04/24

Seikoji Temple Kyoto

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. jigoku no oni 地獄の鬼 demons of the Buddhist hell .
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Seikooji, Seikō-Ji 星光寺 Temple Seiko-Ji
京都の六角大宮 / Kyoto Rokkaku no Miya

This temple is famous for an old picture scroll



星光寺縁起絵巻 Seiko-Ji Engi Emaki - Legends about the origin of Seikō-ji
attributed to 土佐光信 Tosa Mitsunobu (1434 - 1525)

- quote -
This is a two-volume picture scroll on the origin and history of Seikoji Temple and the miracles of its principal deity, Jizo Bodhisattva, also known as Yanefuki Jizo 屋根葺地蔵 (Jizo repairing a roof) and one of the six Jizos (bodhisattvas) in central Kyoto.
The articles on January 27 and February 29, 1487 of Sanetaka Koki 実隆公記 (Sanetaka's diary) show that Sanjo Sanetaka wrote the legend to the Seikoji Engi-e (paintings of the origins and history of Seikoji Temple) drawn by Tosa Mitsunobu.
Therefore, it used to be generally believed that the two existing volumes together with the legend constituted the standard work of Mitsunobu. However, at present, it is considered to be a quality copy of Mitsunobu's original work, which was made soon after Mitsunobu's original work was created. Nevertheless, the paintings in the scroll constitute the standard work of the late 15th century.
Inside the residence of Taira no Sukechika 平資親 (first volume, act 1), the 山城守 governor of Yamashiro, paintings can be seen on papered sliding doors (fusuma-e), which depict a Mokkei-type bamboo groove and monkeys. The reed and crane fusuma-e paintings surrounding Sukechika's bedroom (first volume, act 3) are also drawn in sumi ink (suibokuga). It is interesting to see how much yamato-e (Japanese paintings) painters have mastered the suibokuga techniques through the fusuma-e. The panels of a folding screen form one large, continuous scene without borders that used to be applied every two panels to divide the screen into sections.
- Look at the scroll here : e-museum
- source : National Institutes for Cultural Heritage -


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Yanefuki Jizo 屋根葺地蔵 Jizo repairing a roof


CLICK for more details of the scroll !

. Jizō - Jizo Bosatsu 地蔵菩薩 - Introduction .


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Some details of oni 鬼 demons of the Buddhist hell









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. jigoku no oni 地獄の鬼 demons of the Buddhist hell .
- Introduction -


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土佐光信 Tosa Mitsunobu (1434 - 1525)

- quote -
a Japanese painter, the founder of the Tosa school of Japanese painting.
Born into a family that had traditionally served as painters to the Imperial court, he was head of the court painting bureau from 1493 to 1496.
In 1518 he was appointed chief artist to the Ashikaga shogunates.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !




. Sanzu no Kawa 三途の川 River Sanzu, the river on the way to hell .


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. jigoku no oni 地獄の鬼 demons of the Buddhist hell .

. Onipedia - 鬼ペディア - Oni Demons - ABC-List - .

. O-Mamori お守り Amulets and Talismans .

. Japan - Shrines and Temples - Index .


[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM . TOP . ]
[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]
- - #onipedia #seikoji #emakiscroll #yanefukijizo #tosamitsunobu -
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2017/04/16

jigoku hell demons devils

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. Onipedia - 鬼ペディア - Oni Demons - ABC-List - .
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jigoku no oni 地獄の鬼 demons of the Buddhist hell
densetsu 伝説 and their legends


On the way to the Buddhist after-life, the dead has to cross
. Sanzu no Kawa 三途の川 River Sanzu, the river on the way to hell .

Next he will meet
. Enma-O 閻魔天、閻魔王 the King of Hell, Emma / 閻王 En-O .
for his verdict : Heaven or Hell ?!


CLICK for more hell paintings !

Many paintings tried to scare people of the Demons of the Buddhist Hell
. jigokue, jigoku-e 地獄絵 paintings of the Buddhist hell .
地獄草子 Jigoku Soshi - Hell Scroll


. Juu Oo 十王, Juo, Ju-O - 10 Ten Kings of Hell - Ten Yama Kings .
- Introduction -


. Nihon Ryooiki, Nihon Ryōiki 日本霊異記 Nihon Ryoiki .
Ghostly Strange Records from Japan // Record of Miraculous Events in Japan
by Kyookai 景戒 (きょうかい/けいかい) Kyokai - Keikai, priest of Yakushi-Ji in the Nara period

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. onigokko, oni-gokko 鬼ごっこ game of tag .

This game has a long history, all the way to Hell,
where 地蔵菩薩 Jizo Bosatsu is trying to lead the poor souls out of hell, past the Oni guardian.




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The hot spring Chinoike jigoku 血の池地獄, the "Blood Pond Hell", based on an image of hell found in Buddhism.

. Oita 大分県の鬼伝説 Oni Demon Legends .

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In the 地獄道 Jigokudo, the Realm of Hell,
there are 8 hot and 8 cold hells. Here the Oni serve as gokusotsu 獄卒 wardens of hell to torture the dead.

. jigokudoo 地獄道 Jigokudo, the Realm of Hell .
one of the The Six Realms in the Buddhist after-life.

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. gakidoo 餓鬼道 Gakido, The Realm of Hungry Ghosts .
Good people go to Heaven, bad people fall into hell and become Hungry Ghosts.
Their necks are so thin, they can not drink water. If they see water, it turns into flames in front of their eyes.




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. Onibashi 鬼橋 the Demon Bridge .
and the Hell Demon vassals of Taishaku Ten 帝釈天が眷属の鬼



. 星光寺縁起絵巻 Seiko-Ji Engi Emaki - Legends about the origin of Seikō-Ji .




. Oojoyooshuu, Ōjōyōshū 往生要集 Ojoyoshu, Ojo Yoshu .
by Genshin 源信  (942-1017), Eshin Soozu 恵心僧都 Eshin Sozu

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oni kyoogen 鬼狂言 Oni Kyogen - Kyogen performances with Oni
There are various Kyogen performances with Oni as their subject.




. kyoogen 狂言 Kyogen performance .
"mad words" or "wild speech"

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One story is about the strong man, Asahina.
The Oni of Hell eventually have to let him go and he heads for 極楽 Gokuraku, the Buddhist Paradise.

. Asahina Saburo Yoshihide - 朝比奈三郎義秀 . 13th century
the son of Wada Yoshimori 和田義盛 (1147-1213).

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武悪(ぶあく) Buaku, Bu-aku - 武悪『あずき』 azuki - 小豆武悪(あずきぶあく)Azuki Buaku
Oni-buaku, 青 Ao-buaku
Azuki - the most typical Oni masks in Kyogen

For Setsubun and special plays, such as
oni no mamako 鬼の継子 The Stepchild of an Oni
蓬莱の島の鬼 the Oni of Horajjima, Asahina and 八尾 Yao

- reference source : material.miyazaki-c.ed.jp/ipa  -

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蓬莱の島の鬼 the Oni of Horaijima

Nagano 長野県
狂言「節分」では蓬莱の島から来た鬼が家にやってきて、女性にだまされ隠れ蓑を巻き上げあられてしまい、豆を投げつけられる。鬼は霊山から来るというのは現在とは違っている。蓑虫伝説との関係があるのではないか。

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oni no mamako 鬼の継子 The Stepchild of an Oni

- reference English : oni no mamako -

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八尾 Yao - Kyogen - Netuske

Jookooji 常光寺 Joko-Ji and the Yao Jizo 八尾の地蔵
- quote -
昔むかし八尾の里の住人で、生前一度も後生を願ったことのない不信者が死んで、冥土に旅立つことになりました。不信者は閻魔大王の審判で地獄に落とされることが心配です。ふと八尾を立つ時に、常光寺の地蔵さんから閻魔大王にあてた手紙を預かっていることに気づきました。 初めは、何がなんでも地獄へ落としてやろうと閻魔大王は取り合わなかったのですが、不信者が必死になって頼むので、手紙を開いてみると、昔なじみの地蔵尊からの手紙でした。
八尾地蔵尊 地蔵尊は「この者の親戚に大変な篤信者がいて、世話になっている。その人に免じてこの者を極楽へやってください」と書いていました。閻魔大王は「八尾の地蔵といえば、昔大変な美僧で、わしとことのほか仲が良かった。その地蔵の頼みとなれば仕方がない」と言って、不信者を極楽へ送るよう取り計らったとのことです。
- HP of the temple
大阪府八尾市本町5-8-1 / 5 Chome-8-1 Honmachi, Yao-shi, Ōsaka-
- reference source : jyokouji.com/about/kyougen -


A Sinner with References and the King of Hell - (Yao)
- full text in English :
- source : kyogen-in-english.com/wp-content -

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. Mibu Kyogen 壬生狂言 .
At the temple Mibudera 壬生寺 Mibu-Dera, Kyoto



Sai no Kawara 賽の河原 One of the typical performances of the Temple, to show the deep mercy of Jizo Bosatsu, trying to save the sinners from falling into hell.
The mask of the Oni is especially fearful, but sometimes the performance of the Oni is quite humorous.
閻魔の庁での閻魔の裁きや鬼の責めなど、恐ろしい場面が続くが、ユーモラスな鬼の演技が緊張をほぐし、壬生狂言の宗教劇としての優れた面を表している。
- reference source : mibudera.com/k_09 -

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. Japanese Legends - 伝説 民話 昔話 – ABC-List .


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愛知県 Aichi 豊田市 Toyota

oni no ido 鬼の井戸 the well of the Demon
At the Jigokudani 地獄谷 "hell valley" at the river 田代川 Tashirogawa there are three huge boulders, called "Oni no zashiki" 鬼の座敷 "Living room of the Oni".
The middle one is very much indented and always filled with water, called "the well of the Demon".
People who had to go downriver to have a rain ritual had to purify their bodies before using this water.
Once one of the 八大龍王 eight great dragon kings, 八坂龍王 Yasaka Ryu-O, passed here. He became thursty on the way and made this water gather in the dent. But then he became more angry and let heavy rain fall.



- one more legend about oni no ido
. Oni no Ido at 大分市 Oita city .


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青森県 Aomori

Jizoo Son 地蔵尊 Jizo Bosatsu
at 恐山 菩提寺 temple Bodai-Ji, Mount Osorezan

The statue of Jiso Bosatsu at the temple is out all night to help the dead children and sinners from the fangs of the Oni. To help them all fast, he has cut off the long sleeves and sems of his robe and slams his 錫杖 staff on the rocks with a loud noise.
The feet of the statue are always covered with sand - they say.



. Osorezan 恐山 Osoresan "Mount Fear" .


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福井県 Fukui 武生市 Takefu 坂口村 Sakaguchimura

jigoku no kama no futa ake 地獄の釜の蓋あけ opening the lid of the chauldron of hell
From August 14 to 16, during the O-Bon rituals,
the lid of the hell chauldron is opened and an Oni with his Kanabo throws out the dead people that got stuck under the lid. The living have to go to a temple and welcome their dead home, otherwise the dead souls will hang out at the eaves of the temple all the time.




. 地獄の釜の蓋が開く日 jigoku no kama hiraki .
In January and July, Emma (Enma, Ema) is out on a holiday (Emma saijitsu 閻魔賽日 and the lid to the chauldron of hell was opened 地獄の釜の蓋が開く日, so these two days are best to visit a temple where Emma is enshrined (閻魔堂 Emado).


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大阪府 Osaka 箕面市 Mino town - 茨木市 Ibaraki town

If someone tells a lie, the Oni from hell come and pull out the tongue with a kuginuki 釘抜き nail puller.
.
If people eat roasted beans with the skin peeled off at Setsubun, they will be made to peel off the skin of stones when they go to hell.


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鳥取県 Tottori

jigokuana, jigoku-ana 地獄穴 the cave of hell

To the left of the waterfall 亀ヶ滝 Kamenotaki at 高山の焼山 there is a cave called "Cave of Hell". In former times there lived the Oni, and also the 平家の落人 samurai of the Heike clan in hiding.
If someone asks for plates and cups for a village ceremony and later comes back to this cave, the things he needed will be placed on the rocks. But you have to bring them back cleaned after use.
Then one day a farmer did not bring the plates and cups back and since then, the Oni never lent them to the villgers.
(This kind of legend is also known in other parts of Japan, where the Kappa or a Snake or other local Yokai monster does the lending.)


. The Heike Clan and Oni - Legends .


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山梨県 Yamanashi 北杜市 Hokuto town 白州町 Hakushumachi

If someone dies during the O-Bon rituals in August, he is put in his grave with a basket on his head. Since he has to go to hell for the first time, together with the other dead relatives of former years, the Demons of Hell hit his head to show who is the new master now, and the basket can protect him.

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- reference : Nichibun Yokai Database -




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. Onipedia - 鬼ペディア - Oni Demons - ABC-List - .

. O-Mamori お守り Amulets and Talismans .

. Japan - Shrines and Temples - Index .


[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM . TOP . ]
[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]
- - #jigoku #jigokuoni #jigokudemon -
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